Citroen, now part of PSA Peugeot Citroën built a Front-wheel-drive Citroen 2CV from 1948 to 1990. The 2 CV name started out meaning two [TAX] horsepower.
1953 Citroen 2CV: As shown in Paris' Grand Palais in 1953
One of France's most popular cars in 1953 the 2 CV had a two-year waiting list, a two-cylinder engine, maximum speed of 50 m.p.h. and a price of $977. At that time a second-hand 2CV was more expensive than a new one because the buyer did not have to wait on one.
During a production run of 42 years between 1948 and 1990, 3,872,583 2CVs were produced, plus 1,246,306 Fourgonnettes (small 2CV delivery vans), as well as spawning mechanically identical vehicles like the Ami — 1,840,396, Dyane — 1,444,583, Acadiane — 253,393, and Mehari — 144,953: a grand total of 8,756,688.
The 2CV was based off 1930's designs on the TPV (Toute Petite Voiture—"Very Small Car") project.
Unique attributes of the 2 CV
It had an unusual four wheel independent suspension. The front and rear suspension were connected on each side. Fully independent but interconnected were front to rear using longitudinal coil springs, inertia and friction dampers.
It was a front wheel drive using 4 speed gearbox.
The brakes were drums front and rear, hydraulic operation, parking brake operates on front wheels with inboard front brakes, in order to help lower unsprung weight thus making ride even softer.
Its power-plant was a small, lightweight, air-cooled, flat twin horizontally opposed cylinders, with overhead valves, 375 cc, 2 CV fiscal power, 9 bhp @ 3500 rpm mounted very low in front of the front wheels for stability. Bore 62 mm Stroke 62 mm, Compression ratio 6.2 : 1, the Carburetor a Solex 22 ZACI, Eight blade cooling fan.
The steering was rack and pinion mounted inside the front suspension cross-tube, well behind the front wheels, away from a frontal impact.
The 2 CV Length is 3780 mm (149"), width 1480 mm (58"), height 1600 mm (63"), wheelbase 2400 mm, front track 1260 mm, rear track 1260 mm, weight 495 kg (1091 pounds).
2CV Chassis and Suspension: Chassis comprising two longitudinal longerons to which are attached 1 suspension arms 2 Tie rods 3 Suspension cylinder 4 Inertia damper 5 Transverse cross member (not an anti roll bar) 6 Friction dampers http://www.citroenet.org.uk
There were many versions of the 2CV including the Type A, AZ, AZL, AZLM, Sahara (4 wheel drive), AMI6, AZAM, Dyane, Berline, 4, 6, Méhari, AU, AZU (Utility pickups).
2CV Sahara 4 wheel Drive Twin Engine: Citroen 2 CV Sahara 1960 to 1966 ENGINES Two, one at the front and one at the rear Number of cylinders per engine - 2 Bore and stroke per engine - 66 x 62 mm Cubic capacity 425 cc per engine (850 cc total) Fiscal power 5 CV Maximum power - 24 bhp @ 3500 rpm Maximum torque - 4 mkg @ 2000 rpm WHEELS AND TYRES 155 x 380 (155 x 400 on early models) ELECTRICS One 6 volt 60 Ah battery 2 dynamos FUEL TANKS Two - one per engine, located under front seats TRANSMISSIONS Four wheel drive. The two clutches are controlled hydraulically. The two gearboxes each with four forward speeds are controlled simultaneously by the same floor mounted gear lever. A lever permitted the rear gearbox to be run in neutral thereby allowing the car to be driven in normal front wheel drive mode. The vehicle can also be driven by the rear engine only. Front and rear quadruple universal joints are fitted. BRAKES Inboard drums on all four wheels, handbrake operates on front drums